YEOMANS CONCEPTS.com

This Is How We End Climate Change

Who Is Allan Yeomans?

formatfactoryimg_0838Allan is the originator of the concept of soil carbon sequestration. His concept was first described in his 1989 paper "The Agricultural Solution To The Greenhouse Effect".

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Link To Video/Photo Gallery

Allan-Yeomans-with-the-Yeomans-Carbon-Still-prototype  

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Link to Yeomans Plow

In the early 1950s, on our family farms in New South Whales we developed a system of farm management we called "Keyline". My father was the genius behind the whole concept. He was a geologist and mining engineer originally and turned this expertise onto the problems of water storage and handling for on-farm water storage and low cost irrigation. He understood insightfully the role for the enhancement of soil fertility in all forms of farm management. My role was in equipment design, and i did think up the name  "Keyline" to describe it all.  

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Born After 1985?

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Plan – Demand Tactics

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Funding and Money

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Carbon Still – Testing for Humus

YEOMANS CARBON STILL          using Loss On Ignition (LOI)  *Big 2,000 grams sample size *Dries sample in 30 minutes to 100°C *LOI Temperatures - 350°C to 550°C *Complete LOI in 60 to 90 minutes *Integral weighing in-situ at 100°C  *Accuracy  1/1000  *No laboratory needed. Farm shed OK With accurate infield sampling kit. Powered 4 inch auger. Powered mixer, Sampling sieves. 

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Yeomans Methodology

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Energy Systems and Nuclear

 

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How bad can it Get?

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Their Tactics – Fossil Fuels and Agrochemicals

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Volunteers – How you can make a difference and be involved.

 

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Home Page – This is how we end Global Warming. Navigating around this site.

 First; You put the Cursor on one of the 13 numbered buttons. Second: The button turns yellow and the big square on the left side lights up with a summary of what you will find when you open the page. Third: Leave the Cursor arrow there and Left Click and you have opened the whole page. The lower part of the screen then comes up with all the information. Forth:Then scroll up or down to find what you want. Fifth: Click the WHITE HOUSE if you want to go back up to the top of the page.

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3. Link to Yeomans Plow 4. Born After 1985? 5. Plan – Demand Tactics 6. Funding and Money 7. Carbon Still – Testing for Humus 8. Yeomans Methodology 9. Energy Systems and Nuclear
2. Link To Video/Photo Gallery 1. Who Is Allan Yeomans? 13. Home Page – This is how we end Global Warming. Navigating around this site.

"The urgent problem is getting rid of the excess carbon dioxide that's already there. Soil can do that.

Emissions reductions must become zero, but that can be phased in over the next two to three decades."
Allan Yeomans. January 1998

Yeomans LOI Soil "Carbon Still"© test takes two hours. Accepts huge 2,000 gram test sample. 550°C

Plus - Yeomans Soil Test Protocol
(for info click Button 1)

10. How bad can it Get? 11. Their Tactics – Fossil Fuels and Agrochemicals 12. Volunteers – How you can make a difference and be involved.

 

WHO IS ALLAN YEOMANS

Allan Yeomans  invented the concept of combating Global Warming by increasing the fertility of the worlds agricultural soils.  He has been called the “the father of soil carbon sequestration” He wrote a paper once on  his ideas. That paper became his presentation in January 1990 at  conferences in the US on the “future of sustainable agricultural”.
        And that’s is where “soil carbon sequestration” all started.

To see the paper, click on  “Agricultural Solution to the Greenhouse Effect”

       He believes and argues that:
“Salvation is – – SOIL with NUCLEAR and BIOFUEL”
 He often points out that so called “renewable energy” is only renewable because it’s nuclear based. He reminds us that, for example, sunlight is powered by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in the Sun, and geothermal power and heat comes from the fission of uranium deep inside the Earth

 Google  Allan Yeomans – Wikipedia or just click on it.

Allan Yeomans’  main concern for the last almost 30 years has been the prevention of global warming and the halting of climate change. He sees this as the most important and significant and most urgent problem facing humanity this century.  He argues that without using his concept of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by incorporating it into enhancing the fertility of the world’s agricultural soils, the warming becomes utterly irreversible. And he believes that chaotic destabilization of the Earth’s biosphere will most likely last a thousand years.

“The Agricultural Solution To The Greenhouse Effect” is an actual photo copy of the original paper that started the world’s interest in what we now call “soil carbon sequestration”. The paper was Allan’s presentation to a three day Esalen Congress on Sustainable Agriculture in January 1990. The congress comprised the then most significant leaders in sustainable agriculture in the United States. Allan Yeomans was the only non-American invited.

By way of interest; several in the group considered who probably should have been invited and were inadvertently overlooked. There were only three names suggested. It must therefore must be considered a very significant and highly respected group of people. Over the following years and decades almost all the attendees at that “think tank” subsequently indorses his concept.       

These were the attendees—

old allan pic

Front row: from left to right
Amory Lovins, Rocky Mountain Institute Snowmass, Colorado.
Terry Gips, Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Richard Nilsen, Whole Earth Review, Sausalito, CA.,
Bob Rodale, Rodale Institute, Emmaus, Pennsylvania.
Kaye Thornley, Molino creek farm, Davenport, CA.,

2nd row – from left to right  
Chris Yeomans, Allan Yeomans, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
Eliot Coleman, Working Land Fund, Vershire, Vermont.
Steve Gliessman, UCSC Agroecology Program, Santa Cruz, CA.,
Kevin Martin, Nat.Org.Grown Week, San Francisco, CA.

3rd Row – From left to right
Steve Beck, Esalen Institute, Big Sur, California.
Jane Mulder, Organic Food Matters, Colfax, CA.
Molly Penberth, CSA Board President, Sacramento, CA.,
Diane Goodman, Farallones Institute Occidental, San Francisco, California.
Wes Jackson, The Land Institute, Salina, Kansas.

Back Row:- from left to right
John Reganold, Wash State University, Dept of Argon, Pullman WA.,
James S. Turner, Healthy Harvest, Washington DC.,
Bill Leibhart, UCD Sustainable Agriculture and Research Program , Davis, Ca.
Steve Pavich, Pavich Family Farms, Delano, California
Conn Nugent, Nathan Cummings Foundation, New York
Ron Kroese, Land Stewardship Project, Marine, Minnesota.

It now seems that almost without exception, every organization represented at that Esalen Congress subsequently supported Allan Yeomans’ concept of combating global warming by the enhancement of the fertility of the worlds agricultural soils.

And so – “From little acorns grow–“

Global Policy is an innovative and interdisciplinary journal bringing together world class academics and leading practitioners to analyse both public and private solutions to global problems and issues. For more information on the Journal Google “Global Policy”. The Journal recently described Australia’s  respected status on soil carbon and its relation to France’s 4 per 1000 Initiative; (Australia being the country where the concept originated)
 The journal stated —

“Australia is currently leads the world in this space, being one of the few countries to have a national regulatory regime recognizing soil carbon sequestration as a source of greenhouse gas abatement. This system, legislated in 2011 under the Carbon Farming Initiative, and now being implemented by the Government’s Emission Reduction Fund allows farmers and land managers to earn carbon credits by storing carbon or reducing greenhouse gas emissions on the land. Australia also has supply chain capacity to deliver soil carbon abatement from farm to the market – soil carbon is already being sequestered by farmers and sold as offsets. The success of this system has much to offer in understanding the achievability of this aspirational target set by France.”

France’s innovative “4 pour 1000 Initiative”—was officially launched Dec.1 2015 during the COP 21 Climate Talks in Paris. More than 100 nations, non-profits and NGOs signed on as giving their official support to the program. Included were 29 individual countries. Today;  2019 there are over one hundred.

The “4 pour 1000 Initiative” is based entirely on the concept of sequestering carbon into soil.
The French “4 pour 1000 Initiative” means a 0.4% increase in the percentage of carbon in the world’s agricultural soils: in English it would be expressed as a “0.4%” increase. It also equates to approximately a 0.7% increase in the organic matter content of those soils.
What is missing from this hugely commendable French proposal, and likewise the Australian greenhouse gas abatement plan, is how increases in soil carbon can be measured; and how much farmers should be paid; and, to certain extent,  where the money is to come from to pay for their crucial contribution in terminating Climate Change. Fortunately the answers are no longer missing

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Measuring carbon changes in a farmer’s soil to pay him—-go to  Red Button 1

Funding to get the overload CO2,  out  —————————– go to Red Button 12

Financial structuring to keep it out ———————————- go to Red Button 13

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Allan’s wife Chris Yeomans OAM comments: 
Allan Yeomans is the author of PRIORITY ONE Together We Can Beat Global Warming. This 500,000 word hard cover publication, I have often heard referred to as one of the most authoritative and comprehensive and insightful works on the subject of global warming and climate change. And how to end it. It’s said by many to cover, in considerable detail the strategies used by the fossil fuel industries to preserve their supremacy in the supply of power and agrochemicals to human civilization.

He describes, in his book PRIORITY ONE,  the creation of the world’s anti-nuclear energy movement. It discusses the various forms of nuclear power generation and even the creation, around one and a half billion years ago of hundreds of almost serendipitously formed stable and self regulating nuclear reactors which, (although his wife),  I don’t entirely follow).

Apparently the discovery by French nuclear scientists of natural occurring depleted uranium triggered the discovery of these strange natural reactors.

Allan is also the inventor and the author of Locution Therapy, a self managed form of psychoanalysis. His late and elder brother Neville was a medical doctor and highly respected professional psychiatrist. The brothers were always friends but I know, did seem to differ considerably on their forms of psychoanalytical treatment.

In the late 1950s he and a school friend produced and marketed their “Banana Chair” which became a household item throughout Australia in the 1960s and 1970s.

He and a couple of other school friends built the first ever multistorey steel/concrete home-unit block built in Australia. It’s at Double Bay in Sydney. It’s called Colebrook  It’s eighteen stories high and has one hundred and eighteen separate units.

Allan was once offered a Captaincy in the Australian Army to go to Vietnam and take over maintenance of all the Australian Army’s military watercraft. Other commitments precluded his acceptance. He was at the time working on classified research for the Australian Navy.

He has given many talks and lectures on soil fertility and its relation to combating greenhouse warming in Canada, the US and here in Australia.

Allan took up gliding in 1965 and also became a respected meteorologist in the sport. He regularly acted as meteorologist and task setter at State and National Gliding Competitions. I think he had his first flying lesson at Bankstown Airfield in a Chipmunk in 1952.

Allan has always been active in sports. He once held the Australian water ski distance jump record.

In gliding, he became the first pilot to cross the Australian Great Dividing Range in a sail plane. That was in 1968. He has been a Chief Flying Instructor in two different fields of sports aviation. He has a helicopter licence and at 80 years of age he took up competitive aerobatics and is now a competent competitor flying his Pitts S2B Special. –(update 2018, he is now the world’s oldest aerobatic competition pilot.)

In 1993 Allan helped me set up an organization we called “Save The Farm Fund” to assist farm families in Queensland and New South Wales  suffering the ravages of the prolonged drought that had settled on Eastern Australia in the 1990s. We managed to collect and distribute over $14 million worth of food and clothing to dozens of areas throughout both States.

I was honored by being named Gold Coast Citizen of the Year in 1995 and Queenslander of the Year the following year. A local park was named Chris Yeomans Park. I was also awarded an Order Of Australia medal in 1997. None of this would have happened without my husband’s help and his allocation of a big area of his factory in which the fund could collect, and pack, and ship goods to distant farm communities.

So much more to add about Allan – I always describe Allan as a conceptual designer. He made aircraft tooling for Qantas, Bullet proofed cars for Brinks, designed and built poker machines in the 1970s. With his many plow implement inventions he has won Australian National Field Days award about 7 times. He has patents on these numerous inventions.

Over the past 25 years he has been building a Solar Thermal Power Generator for commercial use and from that, won the Mayors Innovation of the Year Award on the Gold Coast around 12 years ago.

Most recently he has invented and built the Yeomans Carbon Still (read about it by clicking on Button 1.)

About 5 years ago I was speaking with the late Professor Harry Messel – he was 92 at the time and was, at times both Chancellor and Vice Chancellor of Bond University. Allan studied physics at Sydney University when Harry was the physics professor there. Harry was saying to me that every time he hears on the news about Allan’s idea of using soil to combat global warming he thinks about him. He knew Allan has been advocating putting the carbon back into the soil for over 20 years to help stop the greenhouse effect.

Chris Yeomans OAM

Allan Yeomans  invented the concept of combating Global Warming by increasing the fertility of the worlds agricultural soils.  He has been called the “the father of soil carbon sequestration” He wrote a paper once on  his ideas. That paper became his presentation in January 1990 at  conferences in the US on the “future of sustainable agricultural”.
        And that’s is where “soil carbon sequestration” all started.

To see the paper, click on  “Agricultural Solution to the Greenhouse Effect”

and agrochemicals to human civilization.

He describes, in his book PRIORITY ONE,  the creation of the world’s anti-nuclear energy movement. It discusses the various forms of nuclear power generation and even the creation, around one and a half billion years ago of hundreds of almost serendipitously formed stable and self regulating nuclear reactors which, (although his wife),  I don’t entirely follow).

Apparently the discovery by French nuclear scientists of natural occurring depleted uranium triggered the discovery of these strange natural reactors.

Allan is also the inventor and the author of Locution Therapy, a self managed form of psychoanalysis. His late and elder brother Neville was a medical doctor and highly respected professional psychiatrist. The brothers were always friends but I know, did seem to differ considerably on their forms of psychoanalytical treatment.

In the late 1950s he and a school friend produced and marketed their “Banana Chair” which became a household item throughout Australia in the 1960s and 1970s.

He and a couple of other school friends built the first ever multistorey steel/concrete home-unit block built in Australia. It’s at Double Bay in Sydney. It’s called Colebrook  It’s eighteen stories high and has one hundred and eighteen separate units.

Allan was once offered a Captaincy in the Australian Army to go to Vietnam and take over maintenance of all the Australian Army’s military watercraft. Other commitments precluded his acceptance. He was at the time working on classified research for the Australian Navy.

He has given many talks and lectures on soil fertility and its relation to combating greenhouse warming in Canada, the US and here in Australia.

Allan took up gliding in 1965 and also became a respected meteorologist in the sport. He regularly acted as meteorologist and task setter at State and National Gliding Competitions. I think he had his first flying lesson at Bankstown Airfield in a Chipmunk in 1952.

Allan has always been active in sports. He once held the Australian water ski distance jump record.

In gliding, he became the first pilot to cross the Australian Great Dividing Range in a sail plane. That was in 1968. He has been a Chief Flying Instructor in two different fields of sports aviation. He has a helicopter licence and at 80 years of age he took up competitive aerobatics and is now a competent competitor flying his Pitts S2B Special. –(update 2018, he is now the world’s oldest aerobatic competition pilot.)

In 1993 Allan helped me set up an organization we called “Save The Farm Fund” to assist farm families in Queensland and New South Wales  suffering the ravages of the prolonged drought that had settled on Eastern Australia in the 1990s. We managed to collect and distribute over $14 million worth of food and clothing to dozens of areas throughout both States.

I was honored by being named Gold Coast Citizen of the Year in 1995 and Queenslander of the Year the following year. A local park was named Chris Yeomans Park. I was also awarded an Order Of Australia medal in 1997. None of this would have happened without my husband’s help and his allocation of a big area of his factory in which the fund could collect, and pack, and ship goods to distant farm communities.

So much more to add about Allan – I always describe Allan as a conceptual designer. He made aircraft tooling for Qantas, Bullet proofed cars for Brinks, designed and built poker machines in the 1970s. With his many plow implement inventions he has won Australian National Field Days award about 7 times. He has patents on these numerous inventions.

Over the past 25 years he has been building a Solar Thermal Power Generator for commercial use and from that, won the Mayors Innovation of the Year Award on the Gold Coast around 12 years ago.

Most recently he has invented and built the Yeomans Carbon Still (read about it by clicking on Button 1.)

About 5 years ago I was speaking with the late Professor Harry Messel – he was 92 at the time and was, at times both Chancellor and Vice Chancellor of Bond University. Allan studied physics at Sydney University when Harry was the physics professor there. Harry was saying to me that every time he hears on the news about Allan’s idea of using soil to combat global warming he thinks about him. He knew Allan has been advocating putting the carbon back into the soil for over 20 years to help stop the greenhouse effect.

Chris Yeomans OAM

Salvation is – – SOIL NUCLEAR and BIOFUEL

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Weight of CO2 in the atmosphere in 1950 was approximately two trillion tonnes. It has climbed to three trillion tonnes.

We have actually added two trillion tonnes (two thousand billion tonnes) since 1950. But half that has been absorbed into the oceans. So the quantity now in the atmosphere is three trillion tonnes.  The one trillion tonnes in the oceans will form calcium carbonate deposits and also stable silt deposits on the ocean floors, but not fast enough. If left alone and if we cease adding geological carbon to the biosphere it would take from centuries to many millennia to clean the CO2 overload out.  Unfortunately CO2 in water exists as carbonic acid (soda water) and is beginning to hinder the outer exoskeleton of  crustaceans, from prawns to krill.

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Fossil fuel use and “climate change” now kills
5 million people per year.

(Air pollution from fossil fuels kills 4,800,000 people and the UN says
Global Warming effects kill 400,000 people Per Year)

         Today 400,000 people are dying every year from Global Warming weather related disasters. That figure was at 2012 and severe weather events have increased. So 400,000 is a minimum.  Air pollution caused by the use of fossil fuels is also separately contributing to the deaths of at least 4.5 million people a year. Click to the report in the Guardian-

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/sep/26/climate-change-damaging-global-economy

     The use of fracking to mine oil and gas has
          destabilized geological structures

         This seems to happen to at least the depth the process is being used. And very probably to much greater depths.

        USGS (United States  Geological Survey) reports that between the years 1973–2008, there was an average of 21 earthquakes of magnitude three and larger in the Central and Eastern United States. This rate has ballooned to over 600 M3+ earthquakes in 2014 and over 1000 in 2015. Through to August 2016, over 500 M3+ earthquakes have occurred.

    (The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it.)

NRDC (Natural Resources Defense Council) on US costs
(This particular report does not factor in soil carbon sequestration)

         They report:-   “Global warming comes with a big price tag for every country around the world. The 80 percent reduction in U.S. emissions that will be needed to lead international action to stop climate change may not come cheaply, but the cost of failing to act will be much greater. New research shows that if present trends continue, the total cost of global warming will be as high as 3.6 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Four global warming impacts alone—hurricane damage, real estate losses, energy costs, and water costs — will come with a price tag of 1.8 percent of U.S. GDP, or almost $1.9 trillion annually (in today’s US dollars) by 2100.

               We know how to avert most of these damages through strong national and international action to reduce the emissions that cause global warming. But we must act now. The longer we wait, the more painful—and expensive —the consequences will be.”

               For the full report go to —–

https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/cost.pdf

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3      billion tonnes  of  gas
4      billion tonnes  of  oil
9      billion tonnes  of  coal
That’s what we buy and burn every year now.

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50    billion tonnes of carbon dioxide

 Is what that burning  produces every year.
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$84 billion per year  —  That’s over $1.5 billion a week to spend on propaganda.

That’s the “money box” available to manipulate public opinion to suit the fossil fuel/agrochemical industries etc. It comes easy from  1% of sales value for coal and gas, and say US $2 a barrel for oil.

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One typical propaganda is – blame commercial jet transport (planes which are hard to replace).  Reality is, jets use 0.230 billion tonnes per year, that’s about a quarter of a billion tonnes, that’s  a tiny 5.8% of the world’s total oil use.

We could live with that 5.8%. Motor vehicles, diesel power generation, and big merchant ships are the problem, and they are easy to change.

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Each of us on Earth “owns” 0.6 hectares of useable land on which to grow our food, graze our animals, and to sequence the atmosphere’s excess carbon dioxide into the soil.

World total area 51.5 billion hectares…World population is now 7.13 billion…One third is land. We live on, build roads and houses and things on just over a third of the land…So each of us “owns” 0.8 hectares or 2 acres of land. Take out roads and houses etc which leaves us with the 0.6 hectares.

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Homo sapien sapien, that’s us, have existed for 100,000 years.

Hominid are extinct bipedal primates. “sapiens” means wise.  “Sapien sapien” is extra wise. Homo sapiens, that’s Neanderthals and a few others have existed for around 200,000 years.

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For more than a million years carbon dioxide (CO2 or CO2) levels have hovered around 275 ppm. Since the late 1940s they have climbed to 400 ppm.

275 ppm means 275 parts per million by volume (0.0275%). By weight it’s a different number. Air’s average molecular weight is just over 28. Carbon dioxide’s molecular weight is 44. So 400 ppm becomes 432 ppm by weight and so air is 0.0432% CO2 by weight. Go To —    https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/a-timeline-of-earths-average- temperature-in-comic-form

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Both the surface of the Sun and the centre of the Earth are  around 6,000° C. However the temperature at the centre of the Sun is 15 million degrees. The temperature on the surface determines the amount of radiant energy emitted, and its frequency.

All bodies radiate electromagnetic energy. . The Sun at 6,000° C. radiates white light, that’s normal visible light.  Things at Earth’s surface temperatures radiate infrared radiation. We can feel infrared as warmth but we cant see it. When any electromagnetic radiation hits and object its absorbed or reflected off in varying degrees.       Oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide are near transparent to the visible light from the Sun but infrared radiation from the Earth’s surface has trouble getting through the “mist” of carbon dioxide, throughout the atmospheres, and can’t so easily get back out into Space. So with more carbon dioxide in the air, the Earth’s surfaces have to be hotter to radiate enough energy to balance the incoming sunlight. That’s how global warming happens.

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The conclusions of the Paris Summit on Climate Change of December 2015  to try to limit temperatures to below 1.5° C, and not to worry too much unless it got to near a  2° C rise, was utterly beyond stupidity.

refer to caption

Global mean surface temperature change from 1880 to 2015, relative to the 1951–1980 mean. The black line is the annual mean and the red line is the 5 year “running mean”   Source: NASA GISS.
The mean line they use here is 1880 to 2015 but that’s a mix of before global warming started and well into it . The big carbon dioxide influx into the atmosphere really started with WW2. To me the important starting line on NASA’s graph is the period ending at the start of WW2. From then until 2015 world temperatures have risen approximately 1.0° C .
That  1.0° C  is all that it took to create the incredible weather instability we are now constantly experiencing all around the world.
 This astute quote from the Economist points out the utter pointlessness of the Paris Summit on Climate Change of December 2015, and how they decided things.
 
 “The two-degree maximum appeared initially in papers written by the Yale economist William Nordhaus in the mid-1970s. As “a first approximation” he suggested the world should not warm more than it had in the past 100,000 years or so—the period for which ice-core data were available. Given how little was known about the costs and damages of global warming at that time, Dr Nordhaus admitted that the estimate was “deeply unsatisfactory”. Nevertheless, European scientists discussed the two-degree limit during the next decade or so; in 1990 the Swedish Environment Institute produced a report that argued that, on the basis of “the vulnerability of ecosystems to historical temperature changes,” warming above just 1°C was not advisable. The authors knew it was too late to keep within this level, and so suggested 2°C instead. From thence the maximum was adopted by the European Union’s Council of Ministers in 1996; the G8 picked it up in 2009. During the chaos of the UNFCCC talks in Copenhagen that year, the two-degree limit emerged in glory, forming part of the deal made there between the world’s biggest polluters. In 2010 it was enshrined within UN policy.”


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Sea levels rise because the water  expands slightly as it gets warmer. Plus glaciers melt and the released water flows into the sea.  Then there are various location effects.   

Location effects. Prevailing winds can heap water up more on one side of an ocean than the other. That’s a location effect. Around three million years ago atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were also 400 ppm and that resulted in temperatures settling out at between 2°C and 3°C higher than they are now. Those sustained temperatures produced sea levels 25 metres higher than now. And even back then, there was still plenty of ice at the poles ready to melt if temperatures got higher.

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Storms, cyclones and tornados automatically get more violent with higher CO2 levels. So does the size of hail stones.

By trapping the heat we get higher temperatures in the lower atmosphere and lower temperatures in the higher atmosphere. (called the lower stratosphere).

 Upward air velocity in storms is a big determinant in their destructivity capabilities. As a hot air bubble rises, it simultaneously cools. The higher altitude it can rise to, the higher the upward air velocity gets. Finally when the surrounding air is warmer than the bubble it stops rising. Higher atmospheric CO2 levels traps extra heat energy in the lower troposphere (ground level to around 35,000 feet). This, plus lower ozone levels lowers the temperature of the lower stratosphere (35,000 feet to around 160,000 feet) so the rising bubble goes higher and so continues to get faster. These heating variations are the main reason for the phenomenal increase in the  intensity and severity and the destructive results of storms, typhoons, cyclones and tornados all across the World.

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Tropical cyclones, as a rule only form when the sea surface temperatures get above approximately 28° C. (83° F)

We are now getting those sea surface temperatures at the latitudes of the Tropical Jet Streams.
And that’s a deadly mix.
We can confidently expect to see more frequent and more violent tropical cyclones in the months and years ahead.     Google these words —    “If you thought 2015 was hot, just wait”

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Every 1° C rise in ocean surface water temperatures means the tropical cyclone belt spreads 300 kilometres further north and south from the equator.

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Would cutting all CO2 emissions to zero tomorrow fix climate change? No. No way. Without removing the excess CO2 that’s now there runaway biospheric  heating is an absolute certainty.          

Without some form of massive sequestration, eliminating all CO2 emissions won’t do the job; levels would stay at 400 ppm for centuries. Ocean water temperatures would slowly rise to catch up to air temperatures. With zero emissions starting tomorrow morning,  biospheric temperatures would rise by an estimated minimum of 0.6°C. This effect is referred to as “committed warming”. With this committed warming, the frighteningly unstable West Antarctic Ice Sheet would continue to melt, along with most other ice sheets on the planet. What’s not included in that 0.6°C rise estimate is that the world’s permafrosts would continue to thaw and release their trapped methane. Methane is 100 times worse a green house gas than CO2.  Arguing that just cutting emissions, by itself, might fix the “climate change” problem is a giant well marketed lie designed to placate the unthinking masses.  Do yourself a favour: get the facts. Read published papers by qualified meteorologists, not news paper journalism.  

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 World temperatures once changed slowly,  a single 1° C temperature change could easily take a thousand years or more.   Now it’s a thousand times faster.

For 20,000 years, since the middle of the last ice age, world temperatures have moved within a 4.5°C range.. But temperatures are now changing up to possibly a thousand times faster. Most of Earth’s species cannot cope with that.  This link is a good illustration:   https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/a-timeline-of-earths-average-temperature-in-comic-form

Also a recent study, published in the scientific journal Nature, uses some sixty  ocean sediment cores to develop a record of Earth’s global average surface temperature dating back 2 million years. ——The study found that if all greenhouse gas emissions were to cease today, the climate would still warm by about 5 degrees Celsius, or 9 degrees Fahrenheit, during the next several centuries.

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Stable tropical rain forest definitely do not absorb carbon dioxide

Get a shovel and have a look. When a rain forests originally formed it would be an absorbers of carbon dioxide. Then the trees mature, and die. So once formed and established, a rain forest totally ceases to be a net absorber of carbon dioxide. The marketing that claims that a rainforest is always absorbing more carbon from the air is an outright lie. If they did, then after a few thousand years the trees would have to be thousands of feet high. And if no big trees then the forest floor would have to be hundreds of feet deep in carbon. They’re not. Rain forest soils are always extremely poor and very lacking in soil organic matter. Tropical rain forests generate the worst soils in the world: except possibly deserts.

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Stable tropical rain forests are net greenhouse gas producers. To combat global warming tropical rain forests are worse than useless:  As jungles produce methane.  

 A stable rainforest breathes in CO2 by day, and breathes it out during the night. Decomposing forest floor litter also discharges carbon back into the air. “Carbon in”, equals “carbon out”. (See previous note)  Unfortunately the “carbon in” is carbon dioxide but some of the “carbon out” is discharged as “marsh gas” from the rotting vegetation. Marsh gas is methane. Methane is one hundred  times more  powerful a greenhouse gas than the carbon dioxide being absorbed. However, over the next a hundred years the methane being generated will ultimately decompose into the less dangerous CO2. But we don’t have a hundred years. And yet it’s constantly drummed into us, and our kids, that tropical “rain forests can save the World”. That’s worse than telling kids that cocaine won’t really hurt you. Again I say  “Do yourself a favour. Get the numbers. Get the facts and only then, decide what to believe.” And then have the courage of your convictions.

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Coal seam gas is at least, twice as bad as coal

 Coal seam gas is almost pure methane. Shale gas is the same. Burning either for energy produces about much less carbon dioxide than burning coal. But there is a big problem with  methane. In the whole process from mining and collecting the gas to where it is finally delivered and burnt there is typically a 5% minimum escape factor of the gas to the atmosphere. A 10% loss is not uncommon. They named it  “Fugitive” gas, which somehow suggests the methane escape was “not really their fault”. Great PR. In some cases Fugitive Gas volumes can be as high as 20% of total production. It’s almost never below 2.5%.
Consider it this way. Burning 100 tons of good quality coal produces  around 280 tons of carbon dioxide. Now let’s burn 100 tones of methane.. This produces only 275 tonnes of carbon dioxide. But the Fugitive gas leak into the air at 5%, is 5 tonnes. And 5 tonnes of methane is as bad as 500 tonnes of carbon dioxide. So burning the methane produces 275 tonnes of CO2 plus the 500 tonnes of CO2 equivalent from the Fugitive methane.  So it’s 280 tonnes of CO2 from burning the coal   And 775 tonnes from burning the, supposedly benign, coal seam gas.   But methane gas produces almost twice the energy per kilogram of coal. 
For equal energy, the ratio with a low 5% Fugitive Gas loss is therefore closer to 280 tonnes CO2 from coal and to 387 tonnes of CO2 from methane. So at best methane is “only” 37% worse than coal.
Fugitive losses would have to be an impossibly tiny 1% for methane to no worse than coal. And that’s near impossible.Much higher than 5% seems to be very common. So burning coal seam gas is never ever better than burning coal, And is often many times worse. But that’s certainly not what the coal seam gas PR people encouraged us to believe.  Google —- “Opinion Dirty Little Secret About Natural-Gas Fracking: Fugitive Methane Emissions”
Or go direct to  ——- https://sites.google.com/site/gasisnotcleanenergy/gas-is-dirty-energy http://www.njspotlight.com/stories/15/07/07/opinion-fracking-and-natural-gas-s-dirty-little-secret-fugitive-methane-emissions/ .

If it doesn’t come up look at the top of your screen. Click it if it’s there.

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Nuclear energy is a totally sustainable energy system and we must always acknowledge it as so. It must always go on any list of “sustainable fuels”.

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The Sun is powered by nuclear fusion (fusion is joining little atoms together; The Hydrogen Bomb was a fusion device )

Nuclear fusion inside the Sun produces the heat that generates the light that is the “sustainable” energy source that powers solar cells. The same energy evaporates ocean water to make rain to produce “sustainable” hydro electric power.

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Earth’s deep interior is hot because of nuclear fission (fission is pulling big atoms apart:  Atoms Bombs are fission devices )

The interior of the Earth contains small quantities of uranium U235 mixed up with a lot of U238. Uranium 235 a fuel used in many nuclear reactors. Deep inside the Earth, U235 fissions as it does in any uranium reactor and the process produces heat. This heat is the energy that drives “sustainable” geothermal power stations.

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The reality is that Tidal Energy is the only non-nuclear energy source on our planet

The Moon revolving around the Earth produces tides in the ocean. No nuclear energy is involved. Tidal energy, therefore is the only energy source that isn’t nuclear based. Tidal energy causes the Moon to slowly slow down.

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All life on Earth evolved in a world full of low level nuclear materials so we are used to it and it’s good for us.

Gamma, X Ray, infrared, ultra violet, radio waves, and visible light are all electromagnetic radiation. Alpha and Beta radiations are particles. Alpha particles are the core of helium atoms. Beta particles are electrons whizzing around and not attached to anything. Electrons, flowing down a wire is electricity. Neutrons make up the numbers in a nucleus and loose ones can be fast or slow. They can get absorbed by an atom and that atom will become another and different material. Neutrons penetrate solid materials and are best stopped by the hydrogen in water. We need to have a good shield to protect us from loose neutrons. Wikipedia is good for neutron information.         Everything can kill you and everything is totally harmless; it just depends on the dose and how it gets into your body.
         Sunshine and nuclear radiation are good for you; and again it depends on the dose. Typically nuclear workers that receive increased radiation are healthier than their fellow workers that don’t. The coal, oil and gas industries of the world will go out of business if the amazing safety of the nuclear energy industry becomes well known. And especially if the health enhancing benefits of getting regular doses of nuclear radiation becomes widely known.        On May 14, 1945 Albert Stevens was injected with a huge dose of plutonium (the world’s biggest ever) to cure his terminal cancer and prevent his pending death. Big mistake. Albert Stevens didn’t have cancer. The injection gave him, in effect a permanent dose of 1,000 mSv per year for the rest of his life. He died just before he turned 80. See Wikipedia and Albert Stevens. Also for some history on the antinuclear propaganda campaign go to — https://www.21stcenturysciencetech.com/articles/nuclear.html

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Australia’s known uranium resources are the world’s largest – almost one-third of the world total.

In 2015-16 Australia produce 8000 tonnes of uranium oxide (8206 tonnes).  From that we could produce  7000 tonnes of uranium metal (6941 tonnes) . Australia is the world’s third-ranking producer, behind Kazakhstan and Canada. All production is exported.

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In your whole life you will produce a billion litres of CO2, or an egg cup full of nuclear waste

The fossil fuel organizations have a huge, unsolved waste disposal problem. Their solution is to convince the gullible public that there is no problem, and additionally, using the atmosphere as a waste dump is perfectly safe. It’s the principal of the “Big Lie”. Tell a lie loud enough and often enough and it becomes the “truth”. 
A person living in any Western society powered by coal, oil, and gas is responsible for discharging into the atmosphere around one billion litres of carbon dioxide throughout his life. The same person in a totally nuclear powered society would produce about one egg cup full of high level nuclear waste. (In conventional nuclear power station design they’re more conservative and allow for a volume of two hen’s eggs.)

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Nuclear waste into deep ocean subduction  zones is the absolutely perfect, political correct solution . And it’s OK for a quarter of a billion years.       

 So the fossil fuel interests got the UN to declare that nuclear waste had to be stay on land and not “pollute the oceans”.  A subduction  zone is like and upside down volcano. It’s where the oceanic plates dive down under the continental plates. They also form the deepest ocean trenches in the world. Mount Everest would fit in some of them, and you wouldn’t see its peak. The subducted materials gets mixed with the molten outer mantle of the Earth’s crust. The round trip, that’s before any individual atom resurfaces, can be a quarter of a billion years. Cast the waste into concrete blocks and drop them into the trenches. It’s so ridiculously simple and easy and incredibly cheap and incredibly safe.

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Alternatively use abandoned mines for storage .
    

      There are plenty a kilometre or so deep. The geology at some of them has been stable for hundreds of millions of years. Back fill with a dozen or so truck loads of concrete. It would sit there, until some dim distant, future, advanced, civilization, decided to study how ancient humans lived, and decided to dig it up.

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All the high level nuclear waste in the world adds up to just under 240 thousand tonnes. The whole lot would fit in any one of the current world’s bigger oil tankers.

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The Earth’s crust contains approximately 40,000 billion tonnes of Uranium

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The current estimated Plutonium content of the Earth is 6 million tonnes

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Cost of nuclear energy same as coal     

       And that’s because we allow coal fired power stations to dump their waste into the air, which hinders sunlight energy radiating out. But we make nuclear energy producers lock up their waste for a thousand years: But even so: coal energy in still not cheaper than nuclear energy. US costs comparisons show this clearly.

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France is 100% nuclear. The fossil fuel lobby promote only 75%      

      Nuclear power stations are the cheapest and safest way of producing electricity. France produces enough nuclear energy to totally supply all its electricity needs. It also produces a lot of hydro power. So it produces something like 115% of its need. It sells the rest. France is the world’s biggest exporter of electricity. However in the world’s fossil fuel compliant media France is always portrayed as being only 75% nuclear, not 100% nuclear. The inference being that it must make up the difference somehow. Maybe with fossil fuels? It’s called “perception management”. France is not silly. It’s not giving away its electricity. It’s selling it for a profit and waste disposal is definitely factored in.

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Biofuels and batteries can run self contained transport   

     There are two major biofuels, Ethanol and bio-diesel.  Ethanol can replace petrol in spark ignition type engines. And biodiesel in diesel engines. Almost all the major automobile manufacturers in the World manufacture engines that run on pure ethanol. When the world price for oil was above US$100 a barrel ethanol was cheaper than petrol. Aircraft engines are now made to run on pure ethanol. In Brazil most agricultural aircraft use these engines. They have been making cars in Brazil for years that can run on pure ethanol, pure petrol, or any blend between.
       Biodiesel is produced when you mix palm oil with ethanol with a little bit of caustic soda to catalyze the bonding chemical reaction. Virtually all diesel engines run equally as well on biodiesel as they do on petroleum diesel. Most run better with less problems as biodiesel doesn’t vary from where you get it.        Ethanol is made by the bulk fermentation of sugar from sugar cane, or the fermentation of any of the grains. Sugar cane makes the most economical sense as you’re fermenting the sap whereas with grain you’re fermenting only the plants seeds.
        Methane is over 100 times as potent a greenhouse gas as carbon dioxide. Sugar cane and oil palms grow best in the wet tropics unlike tropical rain forests, no methane is produced to discharge into the air .
        In a modern two car family it would be nice if one car at least was battery powered. Of course the perfect combination is a hybrid vehicle with a biofuel design engine.

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Fossil fuel PR promotes nuclear energy as non-renewable        

    What is promoted as “sustainable energy” is derived ultimately from nuclear fission in the Earth interior or nuclear fusion in the Sun’s interior. Then the pro-fossil fuel, anti-nuclear lobby creates an incredible piece of “double think”. They promote the image that nuclear energy doesn’t qualify as “sustainable energy”. The reality is that there is enough easily and cheaply mined uranium and thorium in the world to last our civilization many thousands of years. There is enough uranium in the world’s ocean, and, with a little development,  it would be reasonably easy to extract. It would then easily power human society for many millions of years. And, as has been noted, there is enough waste disposal systems to last us a few billion years.

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Nuclear energy is a totally sustainable energy system and we must always acknowledge it, as so. It must always go on any list of “sustainable fuels”.

savannah

The World,s first nuclear merchant ship.
NS Savannah passing under the Golden Gate Bridge in 1962
[thank you Wikipedia]

savannah2

Abridged link to Wikipedia — Nuclear Ships of the World    https://www.google.com.au/search?q=nuclear+ships+of+the+world& pkD18dnKbgQU0%3D&dpr=1&ved=0ahUKEwjc_eO0-world

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